Moreover, the motivation to take path 7 implies that path 2 is implicitly accepted or there would be no theological reason to undertake it.
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This fact underscores the presence of relations between science and theology actually running in both directions! The strongest case for this comes from those who hold that theology and science as such are totally separate fields with no possible relationship between any elements in either area. What may seem more surprising is that several of the most important scholars in the theology and science interaction agree that when it comes to creation theology, creatio ex nihilo is an entirely philosophical argument for which empirical evidence is irrelevant.
The contingency of the universe consists in its sheer existence, and is independent of the question of its temporal beginning. Finally there are a variety of positions that one can take between the two extremes of direct relevancy and complete irrelevancy as developed by such scholars as Ian Barbour , Phil Clayton , Mark Worthing, Howard van Till , and Ted Peters.
Of course such issues are highly nuanced by the theoretical framework of theoretical cosmology, with its penumbra of attendant assumptions about nature, and they may be forever beyond the possibility of direct empirical confirmation. Nevertheless when a philosophical analysis of nature is focused on such issues as these, it gives its theological appropriation at least some connection with the empirical world.
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Past temporal finitude, in turn, is a form of temporal finitude, temporal finitude is a form of finitude, and finitude, to complete the argument, is a form of contingency. I believe this gives these theologies that take science seriously but indirectly an advantage over the many other theologies present today that insulate themselves entirely from science.
I believe this gives such theologies an advantage over those which tie their claims about the universe directly to specific results in science. Perhaps the best way to test my claims is to see what happens to the conversations between theology and science in mutual interaction when we move to inflationary and quantum cosmologies.
Before doing so, I want to close this section with a brief mention of the Anthropic Principle. As numerous scholars have argued in detail, the physical conditions which make evolution possible impose an extremely narrow restriction on both the form of the fundamental laws of physics and the values of the constants of nature. If there is only one universe, as standard Big Bang depicts, it seems quite reasonable to ask why the laws of physics and the values of the constants of nature which characterize this universe happen to lie within these restrictions.
Within the voluminous literature on the subject, a particularly striking recent argument has been given by cosmologist George Ellis and philosopher of religion Nancey Murphy.
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They tend to follow path 3 , embedding the Anthropic discussion within a philosophical analysis that then serves theological research. More recently, attempts have been made to unify quantum physics and gravity and apply the results to cosmology. What effect has the transition to inflationary and quantum cosmologies had on the conversations with theology? The answer is intriguing. Yet the story is more subtle.
Presumably the further, if implicit, constraint is that, since the universe is run entirely by natural laws, then all God could have done is to create it at the now non-existent beginning event; thus for all intents and purposes, God does not exist. Both apparently see a direct relation between a theological claim e. I am suggesting instead that we look for indirect relations between cosmology and theology, ones in particular which involve a philosophical analysis of cosmological theories and their assumptions.
In such an approach, the philosophical implications for theology of inflation and quantum cosmology may differ from those of Big Bang cosmology, but they are in no way eliminated.
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Instead, ontological , cosmological, and teleological issues resurface again as fertile sources of theological discussion. Whether or not there was a beginning, the very fact of existence drives us to ask why anything exists at all? Article information. Article Information Volume: 56 issue: 1, page s : Sign Out. Email required Password required Remember me Forgotten your password? Need to activate?
Creation ex nihilo: Theology and Science | Reasonable Faith
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