Or perhaps someone has a place to live in and enough food to eat, but has no clothes to wear: that is also a form of suffering within suffering. Or someone may have sufficient clothing and shelter, but always goes hungry. That is also the suffering within suffering and is known as the suffering of poverty. Such suffering is hard to endure. It oppresses one to an acute degree. You might object, "Rich people don't experience suffering, right? A person may be both noble-born and wealthy, but then be kidnapped by bandits.
The bandits estimate his wealth and estate to be worth five million, and they demand six million in ransom. He has to borrow another million to satisfy the kidnappers. Isn't this a case of wealth going to ruin? This is the suffering of decay when it applies to wealth. If you don't experience the suffering of poverty or the suffering of wealth going to ruin, you will still pass through life's various processes: from youth to maturity, from maturity to old age, and from old age to death. Your thoughts roll on in ceaseless succession, and that is the suffering of process. Those are called the Three Sufferings.
The Eight Sufferings are: 1. That is why the Buddha said, "There is suffering; its nature is oppressive. The accumulation of afflictions is a kind of beckoning.
The words of a Mystic...
Once you have afflictions inside you, afflictions will accumulate from outside. If inwardly you harbor greed, hatred, and stupidity, then outwardly things will not go your way. That is why the Buddha described it as accumulation, with a nature that beckons. This can be realized. You can realize the joy of this stillness and quietude. Together, they make up the Thirty-seven Limbs of Enlightenment. The Way, by its nature, can be cultivated. The above was the first turning of the Dharma-wheel of the Four Noble Truths, and it is called the Turning of Revelation.
The Buddha said, "There is suffering, you should recognize it. There is accumulation, you should cut it off. There is cessation, you should realize it. There is the Way, you should cultivate it. He urged other people to cultivate the Four Noble Truths. This is called the Turning of Exhortation. The Buddha said, "Not only am I telling all of you to recognize suffering, cut off accumulation, long for cessation, and cultivate the Way, I am also telling you, there is suffering; I have already recognized it. There is accumulation; I have already cut it off.
What accumulates are afflictions and I have already cut them off. I would not tell you to stop afflictions before I myself had stopped them. I feel at ease now because I am free of afflictions. That is why I am telling you now to cut off afflictions, and to recognize the suffering that they bring on. There is cessation, I have already realized it. So I am telling you all now to realize the joy of cessation, too.
There is the Way, I have already cultivated it. Now I hope that all of you will recognize suffering, cut off its accumulation, long for cessation, and cultivate the Way. When the Buddha spoke the three turnings of the Dharma-wheel of the Four Noble Truths, Ajnata - kaundinya immediately became enlightened and realized the fruition of his cultivation.
Thereafter he was called the one who understands the fundamental limits of reality. He was also known to posterity as the first one to understand. Why did Ajnata-kaundinya awaken first? Because in the past, when the Buddha was at the stage of causation, he was incarnated as the Patient Immortal. King Kali sliced off all four of his limbs and demanded to know whether the Immortal felt any hatred towards him. He replied, "No, I don't hate you. If I bear you no ill will, then the four limbs that you have severed will grow back just as they were.
With those words, his four limbs did grow back as they had been. So when the Buddha accomplished Buddhahood, he looked around to see whom he should take across first.
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I should first rescue the man who cut off my hands and feet. Next the Buddha explained about holding precepts and giving. How does one uphold the precepts? How does one practice giving? How does one get reborn in the heavens? He warned about desire, saying, "Having thoughts of desire is wrong; it is impure.
The words of a Mystic
If you leave desires behind, only then can you become pure, only then can you gain true happiness. They were the next two to awaken. Third, the Buddha went on to explain other Dharma-doors, and at that time Mahanama-kulika and Dashabala-kashyapa also became enlightened. Those five men were the first to leave home and become Bhikshus.
They were the first ones to become enlightened and to realize the Fourth Stage of Arhatship. Later, the other Bhikshus asked the Buddha about the Dharma to clear up their misunderstandings and doubts about principles. And asked the Buddha how to resolve them. They asked the Buddha whether they should go forward in their cultivation or stop where they were. They asked the Buddha to make a decision for them. The World Honored One taught and exhorted them until one by one they awakened and gained enlightenment.
The Buddha taught and transformed the Bhikshus, and gave them instructions; he offered them advice. After the Buddha taught and transformed them, every one of the Bhikshus became enlightened. That is when they each put their palms together, respectfully gave their assent, and followed the Buddha's esteemed instructions.
Then they placed theirpalms together respectfully and gave their assent.
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That is, they put into practice the principles that the Buddha taught them. Because I thought everyone already understood, I skipped explaining the meaning of "Bhikshu. Because it has three meanings, if you translate it as "mendicant," then the meanings "destroyer of evil" or "frightener of Mara" are lost. If you choose "destroyer of evil" as the translation, then it won't mean "mendicant" or "frightener of Mara. This is one of the five kinds of terms that should not be translated in the translation of sutras. The five kinds are:. Because the word "Bhikshu" contains three meanings, its Sanskrit rendering is retained.
Destroyer of evil: When afflictions are present, there is evil. A Bhikshu is called a destroyer of evil.
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Mendicant: From above, a Bhikshu receives Dharma from the Buddha in order to increase his wisdom-life. From below, he seeks food from living beings, so that they might plant a field of blessings. Frightener of Mara: When a Bhikshu ascends the mandala platform to receive the Bhikshu precepts, the Precept Teacher Upadhyaya asks him, "Are you a great hero? Therefore he's called a frightener of Mara. When one leaves home to become a novice Shramanera , one must know the meanings of the words Shramanera and Bhikshu.
After he leaves home, a Bhikshu must know how to destroy evil and how to cut off afflictions. Destroying evil is the equivalent of cutting off afflictions. Our afflictions are extremely evil. If you wish to know whether or not an individual cultivates the Way, you need only check to see whether or not he still has a temper. A person with a big temper does not cultivate the Way. Someone who cultivates the Way is able to patiently endure anything that comes along. No matter who scolds or beats him, he can endure it, to the point that even if someone were to kill him, he could endure it.
In all of these situations, one must be patient. Besides being patient, one must possess wisdom and a discriminating eye. That is why a Bhikshu has a world-transcending appearance. If a Bhikshu is able to cut off delusions and to realize the Truth, if he can cut off the delusions of the Triple Realm, then he will realize Arhatship.