In the Christmas Tree

Sections II and V, both of which feature series of standalone lyrics, pick up There is much of the grotesque in Section III, a poem sequence titled “Virus,” in Centaur By Greg Wrenn University of Wisconsin Press Paperback.

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From the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world. This, and the Renaissance of Classical learning, meant that many new words and phrases entered the language. The invention of printing also meant that there was now a common language in print.

First Britons

Books became cheaper and more people learned to read. Printing also brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed, and the dialect of London, where most publishing houses were, became the standard. In the first English dictionary was published.


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Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly, the British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the earth's surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries. From around , the English colonization of North America resulted in the creation of a distinct American variety of English. Some English pronunciations and words "froze" when they reached America. Some expressions that the British call "Americanisms" are in fact original British expressions that were preserved in the colonies while lost for a time in Britain for example trash for rubbish, loan as a verb instead of lend, and fall for autumn; another example, frame-up , was re-imported into Britain through Hollywood gangster movies.

Spanish also had an influence on American English and subsequently British English , with words like canyon , ranch , stampede and vigilante being examples of Spanish words that entered English through the settlement of the American West. French words through Louisiana and West African words through the slave trade also influenced American English and so, to an extent, British English.

Today, American English is particularly influential, due to the USA's dominance of cinema, television, popular music, trade and technology including the Internet. Germanic is a branch of the Indo-European language family. EnglishClub : History of English History of English This page is a short history of the origins and development of the English language. English replaces French as the language of law. English is used in Parliament for the first time.

Romans (AD 43–c.410)

Because of present ignorance of domestic sites, these periods are mainly defined by technological advances and changes in tools or weapons. In general, the southeast of Britain continued in close contact with the continent and the north and west with Ireland. From about bc there is clearer evidence for agriculture in the south; the farms consisted of circular huts in groups with small oblong fields and stock enclosures. This type of farm became standard in Britain down to and into the Roman period.


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From the 8th century onward, British communities developed close contacts with their continental European neighbours. Some of the earliest hill forts in Britain were constructed in this period e. Knowledge of iron, introduced in the 7th century, was a merely incidental fact: it does not signify a change of population. The centuries — bc saw continued development of contact with continental Europe.

Yet the greater availability of iron facilitated land clearance and thus the growth of population. The earliest ironsmiths made daggers of the Hallstatt type but of a distinctively British form. The century following bc saw the building of many large hill forts; these suggest the existence of powerful chieftains and the growth of strife as increasing population created pressures on the land.

By bc swords were making their appearance once more in place of daggers. During the 2nd century the export of Cornish tin, noted before by Pytheas of Massalia, a Greek explorer, continued; evidence of its destination is provided by the Paul Cornwall hoard of north Italian silver coins. In the 1st century bc this trade was in the hands of the Veneti of Brittany; their conquest 56 bc by Julius Caesar, who destroyed their fleet, seems to have put an end to it.

Industrial Revolution: Definitions, Causes & Inventions - HISTORY

The emergence, however, of the British tribes known to Roman historians was due to limited settlement by tribesmen from Belgic Gaul. Coin finds suggest that southeast Britain was socially and economically bound to Belgic Gaul. You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security. United Kingdom. Article Media.

History of the British Isles

Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Load Previous Page. Ancient Britain Archaeologists working in Norfolk in the early 21st century discovered stone tools that suggest the presence of humans in Britain from about , to 1 million years ago.

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Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.